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Jewelry making (from the Dutch juwelier "jewel") is a type of decorative and applied art in which the artist creates a product from precious materials, using various techniques of their processing. Much rarer, but still used in jewelry are base metals and their alloys, semi-precious and ornamental stones. A skilled jeweler should not only be able to use a special tool and have a thorough knowledge of the technical peculiarities of the profession, but also possess outstanding creative abilities to develop original designs for their pieces. Jewelry making is justly classified as one of the most prestigious creative professions, whose secrets are scrupulously guarded by the craftsmen and carefully passed on from generation to generation. And for unique masterpieces made by eminent jewelers, wealthy people are ready to pay a lot of money. Jewelry making is a special art where a master, endowed with an outstanding talent, is able to turn expensive materials into works of not only monetary, but also significant artistic value. The history of jewelry has more than 5 thousand years, that is the age of the earliest art objects made of gold found on the territory of modern Egypt. In those ancient times, local craftsmen were already able to make all sorts of jewelry made of the precious metal, including bracelets, bibs, necklaces and funeral masks of pharaohs. In our centuries, namely during the epoch of Great Geographical Discoveries (the end of XIV - the end of XVII centuries) Europeans at last could get acquainted with examples of jewelry art from other regions of the Earth. Sailors and later adventurers began to bring from Africa, India and China products of local jewelers. At the same time, a huge number of unique gold masterpieces from pre-Columbian American civilizations were melted down by Spanish conquistadors into coins and ingots. In the centuries that followed, jewelry manufacturing, along with other forms of art, had its ups and downs, diverse styles came and went, and new techniques and materials emerged. The 19th century saw the start of industrial-scale jewelry-making and the foundation of world-famous jewelry companies such as Cartier of France, Tiffany & Co of the United States and Swarovski AG of Austria. The names of the overwhelming majority of ingenious jewelers of those times have been lost forever for posterity, and only a few of them are known to a narrow circle of specialists. Many creative individuals who worked with precious stones and metals have made a significant contribution to world culture. Charles Lewis Tiffany is the founder of a huge transnational jewelry company named after him. Tiffany was not only a talented jeweler but also a successful entrepreneur, and the company he created is now worth over $16 billion. Daniel Swarovski was an Austrian engineer who created the world famous company for processing precious stones, the world market leader in cut crystal. Nowadays Swarovski crystals are used by the best designers and fashion designers in developing of elite collections of clothes. Louis-Francois Cartier is a French jeweler, founder of Cartier company and a huge network of specialized stores all over the world. His company became world famous later thanks to development of watches decorated with precious stones by his grandson. Today jewelry making is still a much sought-after art form. The unique masterpieces of the ancient masters decorate the halls of the best museums of the world and the private collections of the richest people of our planet. But common people buy mass-produced jewelry for themselves and their loved ones whenever possible.